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Dogfish

Atlantic Species Megaladon

Giant size sharks are not just great white.Giant sharks are from the tiger shark,hammerhead,greenland,sand tiger shark,dog shark,carpet shark,alligator shark{sturgeon}crocodile shark{gar} These creatures are more violent than what you think.Pup attacks and they severe and bite.They have rows of teeth and frames as sharks.They hide entire bite that protrudes outward to cover teet exposed.It is in shark species.That means for every shark that it has platelets armor .It has extra weight over the outside.Crocodile Gar used to stalking in brackish dirty muddy water stalk victims and use of tonnes vs prey.Their jaws and mouth become bigger til they reach tonne and they have more bite power compared to the great white.Their bite power is excessive.They have a powerful jaws and teeth get bigger than baby teeth and for chopping meat.Killing prey as they grow to tonne.Megaladon when a few tonnes is pup but the Alligator shark sturgeon and Alligator Gar become fiercesome predator that uses secrecy to stalk its food and take chomp and to bite into body to weaken supports on body.They grow to 40tonnes.And when that large they eat
Sea Monsters - A Walking with Dinosaurs Trilogy (HD Quality) Ep29:12

Sea Monsters - A Walking with Dinosaurs Trilogy (HD Quality) Ep. 2

whales and seals.White sturgeon finds its way out of the Great Lakes to sea water to hunt.To get seals.These are giants that grow huge.Their brain grows big and Canada is hiding sturgeon attacks on man and people.They are allowed to eat people.When they are 7ft they are dangerous to remove limbs.Its how it hides itself from being wild.Starving in ocean as a giant in tonnes makes it more dangerous.Sleek and stalker system mind.Needs this to eat.Intelligent and hunts under ice of Great Lakes.It must fight alot vs sharks and encounters with Great whites.Proportion body gives it cruising speed to intercept prey and has a bite without snout being heavy.Sturgeon has a short bite like ice cream scoop bite like a cougar.Smaller shorter snout more it will get close and attack make giant wound.Secret giant flesh eater as nature made it tonnes to predation.It uses size to injure break bones.Stalk in waters of sea and Lakes and rivers.It is hiding its growth rate to 30tonnes and more.Once striked double digits in tonnes then nature has equipped it to fight and hunt.Won't shark cage it.                        http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/alligator-gar/                           
Meet Old Nic

Alligator Gar

Alligator-gar-fish

Alligator Gar,shark

http://herebemonsters.wikia.com/wiki/Alligator_Gar  Fish World | The Alligator Gar Fish | The Alligator Gar Fish ("Gator Gar"), a spatula Atractosteus is a primitive ray-finned fishes. Unlike some other guy, the Alligator Gar mature has a double row of large teeth in the upper jaw. Its name derives the appearance of crocodile-like snout with teeth of the fish. The dorsal surface of the Alligator Gar is brown or olive color, while the ventral surface tends to be lighter. Their scales are diamond shaped and Nesting (ganoid) and are sometimes used by Native Americans for the leaders of jewelry and arrows.
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Alligator Gar shark

Alliieennss-50537-60585

Alligator Gar

[1]With its status as largest species of Gar, Alligator Gar is the largest exclusively freshwater fish in North America, measuring 8 to 10 feet (2.4 to 3.0 m) and weighing at least 200 lb ( 91 kg) at maturity. Kenny Williams of Vicksburg, Mississippi, broke the record for the largest alligator ever caught Gar with a net.  He caught the fish 14 February 2011, it measured 8 ft. 5 in. (2.57 m) long, 327 lb (148 kg) of weight, and nearly 48 inches (120 cm). The fish is believed to have been between 50 and 70 years, wildlife officials said. Williams donated the fish to the Museum of Natural Science in Jackson Mississippi, where he will be on permanent display in the future.[2]The current world record for largest alligator Gar caught on rod and reel is 279 lb (127 kg). The most important is taken by bowfishing 365 lb (166 kg). The fish is also known for its ability to survive out of water, up to two hours above the surface.

Mississippi river bad map

Map of Mississippi River and Great Lakes

RWNET Route2

map of Mississippi River and Great Lakes

Alligator gar
are found in the Lower Mississippi River and Gulf Coast states of the Southern States-Mexico border to the south of Veracruz, which encompasses the following states: Texas, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Arkansas, Missouri, Florida and Georgia. They have also been known historically to come as far north as central Kansas, Nebraska, Kentucky, Ohio, Iowa, and west-central Illinois, where the catch was verified as North at Meredosia, Illinois in 1922 and a 8.5 ft (2.6 m) specimen, now preserved, was captured near Beardstown. Samples at locations further south in Illinois have been tested recently in 1976 with the Academy of Sciences of Illinois controlled a total of 122 catches on that date.
Rm lake sharks 02

Rocky Mountain lake with shark

They inhabit sluggish pools and backwaters or large rivers, bayous and lakes. They are found in brackish or salt, and are more adaptable to the latter that are the other guys. In Louisiana, it is common to see these large gardens striking the surface in the brackish marshes.[3]There have been some remarkable observations Alligator Gar outside North America. In February 2007, a 1.5 m (4.9 ft) was found Alligator Gar swimming in Jakarta, Indonesia, when the city was hit by a major flood (see External Links below). In January 2008, a 3 kg (6.6 lb) alligator gar was found by fishermen in Bera, Pahang, Malaysia, where he was entangled in a fishing net.[4]In November 2008, from 0.5 to 0.6 m (1.6 to 2.0 ft) long Alligator Gar was caught in northern Esenguly, Turkmenistan by two officials of the Fisheries Protection in Turkmenistan. Dr R. Mayden, Saint Louis University and Dr. Eric Hilton, Virginia Institute of Marine Science has confirmed that it was probably a spatula Atractosteus.

On September 4, 2009, a 1 m (3.3 ft) long Alligator Gar was found in Tak Wah Park in Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong. In the next two days, at least 16 Alligator Gars other, with the largest measuring 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long, were found in ponds in public parks in Hong Kong. As reported by local residents, the fish were released into ponds by the aquarium and had lived for some years. However, after a complaint from a citizen who falsely identified the crocodile fish, words like "horrible Man-eating fish" were found in the titles of some major local newspapers. Government officials decided to remove all fish ponds as they claimed species have no conservation value and would affect the local ecology if left in the ponds. 

The Recreation and Cultural Department said it would offer non-hazardous Fish for animal welfare groups and charities. The fish was caught first died later that day, and claims were made that the local government does not treat the guys in a way animal-friendly - they were seen catching fish with nets and improvised garbage. On 6 September, the government put down all the fish as he said that there were no organizations ready to be taken. September 8, however, the Hong Kong Ocean Park announced he was ready to catch fish for the exhibition and public education. Five guys survivor, taken September 7, were sent to the Ocean Park.[5]On January 21, 2011, 1.5 m (4.9 ft) Alligator Gar was caught in a canal in Pasir Ris, Singapore by two anglers. The fish was caught from a pond nearby where the owner has confirmed as an alligator Gar, Arapaima and not men inititally thought.

Alligator guys have also recently become a "trophy" fish for aquariums, especially in Japan. In June 2011, a group of men from Florida and Louisiana were charged with illegally removing Gar wild Trinity River, Texas and trying to ship the fish to Japan at the request of private collectors. It is alleged that the largest fish may have recovered $ 40 000 in the Japanese market in black.

The Alligator Gar is relatively passive, solitary fish that lives in fresh and brackish waters in the southeastern U.S. It is carnivorous and feeds by lurking amongst reeds and other vegetation ambush prey,. Alligator gar have often been suspected in attacks on humans, but none of these attacks have been officially confirmed to be the work of this kind.

Fish is popular among bowfishers because of its size and its tendency to fight. An interesting feature of this fish anatomy is that its buoyancy bladder is directly connected to his throat, giving him the opportunity to draw in the air above the water. For this reason, Alligator Gar are often found near the surface of a body of water.

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Cacharadon Megaldon




Shovelnose sturgeon

Sturgeon bite

The white sturgeon is like no other fish! Instead of scales, five rows of bony plates (scutes) reach from its gills to its tail, covering its sandpaperlike skin. It also has sharklike qualities including a cartilaginous skeleton and a sharklike tail.

Mostly a bottom-dweller, a white sturgeon spends its time rummaging on the seafloor for food. Unlike most other fishes, its taste buds are on the outside of its mouth. These taste buds, along with barbels (feelers) under the sturgeon's snout, help the fish select food, and a toothless mouth sucks it up.

Conservation

In the late 1800s, commercial fisheries began to supply the demand for caviar (sturgeon eggs) and smoked sturgeon. The fisheries grew rapidly—too rapidly. They collapsed in the late 1890s due to overfishing. In 1917, California banned commercial and sport fishing of white sturgeon.

Along with overfishing, habitat destruction—including dams that close off spawning grounds—and pollution contributed to the decrease in white sturgeon populations. Management of the fisheries is improving. As of 1997 in San Francisco Bay, the white sturgeon population is now larger than it has been since the 19th century.

Environmentally safe farms now raise white sturgeon for fillets and caviar.

Cool Facts

White sturgeon are the largest freshwater fish in North America. The largest on record weighed 1,500 pounds (628 kg).

The white sturgeon grows slowly, maturing in eight to 20 years, depending on location. Fish in the south of its range mature faster than those in the north. White sturgeon produce 100,000 to four million eggs per spawning, but they spawn only once every two to eight years.

In the past, isinglass—an almost pure gelatin prepared from the lining of sturgeon air bladders—was often used as a clarifying agent and as glue. In spite of modern substitutes for isinglass, it's still used to clarify white wines and for glue and sizing in art restoration work.  ====Search Animal Guide====

Sturgeon-esturgeon

White Sturgeon "Alligator Shark"

St. Pierre, R. & Pourkazemi, M. (Sturgeon Red List Authority)
Justification:

In 1996, the IUCN SSC Sturgeon Specialist Group assessed the white sturgeon as Lower Risk, near threatened (LR/nt). A re-examination of all the data available for this species has resulted in it being downgraded to Least Concern.

Some subpopulations of white sturgeon are of conservation concern:

1. A recent analysis using a population dynamics model for the Nechako River subpopulation has indicated more than 50% probability of extinction in the wild within the next 20–30 years if the current decline rates continue. The subpopulation is Critically Endangered.

2. The subpopulation from the upper Columbia River is showing major signs of recruitment failure. It is assessed as Critically Endangered.

3. The Kootenai River subpopulation has been in general decline since the mid-1960's and the remaining wild subpopulation is comprised primarily of adult sturgeon older than 25 years, with very little recruitment observed in the wild since the mid-1970's. It is currently assessed as Endangered.

4. The Upper Fraser River subpopulation has a restricted range and is estimated to have no more than 250 mature adults remaining. The subpopulation is Endangered.

5. The Fraser regional subpopulation has declined substantially since the 1980s and is assessed as Vulnerable.

However, the majority of the global population occurs along the west coast of the United States, occurring in several river systems and rearing primarily within the Sacramento-San Joaquin and Columbia-Snake River basins. Within this range, white sturgeon subpopulations enjoy relatively large, albeit fluctuating, adult populations and in some areas, substantial and sustainable recreational and commercial fisheries. Although some impounded reaches show relatively low recruitment and productivity (along with limited unidirectional gene flow), in general this regional population of white sturgeon is still widespread and abundant. The species is considered Least Concern (LC) at this time.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The largest component of the white sturgeon population occurs along the west coast of the United States and comprises subpopulations occurring in several river systems and rearing primarily within the Sacramento-San Joaquin and Columbia-Snake River basins. The species is also found in the Kootenai River (United States and Canada), the Fraser River drainage (Canada), and the Columbia River between Hugh Keenleyside Dam and the Canada-U.S. border.

There is evidence of emigration from the Sacramento and Columbia river systems based on out-of-system tag studies (PSMFC 1992). These included Chadwick (1959) who cited the recovery of a fish tagged in San Pablo Bay in 1954 and recovered in the Columbia River, and Kohlhorst et al. (1991) who noted that 11 white sturgeon tagged in San Pablo Bay (Sacramento River system) were caught in six river systems north of California, primarily the Umpqua River, Oregon (five tags recovered) and the Chehalis River, Washington (three tags). Also in this study, one tag return each was received from the Columbia River, Yaquina River and Tillamook Bay, Oregon and the Willapa River, Washington. More recently a fish originally tagged in the lower Columbia River was re-captured in the Sacramento River in 1997 (DeVore et al. 1999a). Population estimates of legal-sized and adult white sturgeon can vary dramatically (DeVore et al. 1999a, Schaffter and Kohlhorst 1999) but for the most part, this stock is generally believed to be healthy and stable.

The upper Columbia River white sturgeon subpopulation inhabits the Columbia River mainstem upstream from Grand Coulee Dam. In this area, the largest documented group of the species resides in the area between Hugh Keenleyside Dam and the Canada-U.S. border. Other remnant subpopulations occur, or are suspected, throughout the remainder of the drainage.

White sturgeon are found in the Fraser River mainstem from the estuary upstream at least as far as the Torpy River, a distance of over 1,000 km (R.L.&L. Environmental Services Ltd. 2000). They are also found in a major tributary of the Fraser, the Nechako River and it’s tributary the Stuart River (these two have a combined stream length of about 400 km). However, sturgeon are not evenly dispersed throughout this length of river, but are clustered in suitable habitat.The Kootenai River subpopulation inhabits and migrates freely in the Kootenai River from Kootenai Falls in Montana (United States) downstream into Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (Canada). It is restricted to approximately 270 km of the Kootenai River and Kootenay Lake.

Countries: Native:Canada (British Columbia); United States (Alaska, California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas: Native:Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Sacramento-San Joaquin River subpopulations

The California Department of Fish and Game periodically monitors the status of white sturgeon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system to estimate abundance and mortality rates. The most recent survey completed in 1997 estimated nearly 140,000 white sturgeon (> 40 inches) in the Sacramento River (Shaffter and Kohlhorst 1999). The number of adult white sturgeon fluctuates annually and is largely the result highly variable year classes affecting adult recruitment. For example, strong year classes from the early 1980s recruited large numbers of adult white sturgeon to the fishery beginning around 1994; conversely subsequent severe drought conditions across California from 1987 to 1992 are expected to affect the size of the adult white sturgeon population since reproduction was generally poor during those years (Schaffter and Kohlhorst 1999). As recruitment basically ceases and growth and general mortality reduce the number of legal-sized fish, the adult population should decline the next few years. However, the subsequent series of wet years beginning in 1993 should contribute to another cycle of strong recruitment producing fish that will enter the fishery late in the next decade. The California Department of Fish and Game believes the current low exploitation rates, the ability for white sturgeon to successfully reproduce and recover rapidly from reduced adult populations during wet cycles, and fishing size limits that protect the most productive (i.e., fecund) female white sturgeon suggest that current fishing regulations are adequate to conserve white sturgeon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River basin.

Columbia-Snake River subpopulations Today, the white sturgeon population residing in the lower, free-flowing reach of the Columbia River is considered the most productive in the species’ range (Devore et al. 1999a). The recreational and commercial harvest in the lower Columbia river has recently averaged over 42,000 annually through 1997. Estimated abundance for legal-sized (42-60 inches) white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River in 1997 was nearly 157,000 fish, a decline from the estimated 227,700 fish in 1995. It appears that the decline was primarily a result of a decrease in the recruitment to the legal-sized population and emigration from the Columbia River system, and not over-harvest.

Upstream in the first three impounded reaches of the Columbia River the estimated abundance of white sturgeon in 1997 increased from a general population crash in the mid 1980's (North et al. 1999). Generally, white sturgeon increased in all size classes sampled. Researchers suspect that more restrictive harvest guidelines along with some relatively strong year classes in recent years are contributing to increasing populations in recent years. These landlocked populations continue to sustain limited harvest and consumption fisheries.

Historically within the Snake River, white sturgeon could range from its confluence with the Columbia River upstream nearly 615 river miles to Shoshone Falls, a natural barrier for sturgeon. Twelve dams were constructed along the Snake River between 1901 and 1975 that fragmented white sturgeon populations from the confluence to Shoshone Falls. The abundance of land-locked white sturgeon in the Snake River varies considerably from river reaches with reproducing populations to other reaches containing few individuals and no detectable recruitment. Reaches with reproducing populations currently provide catch and release sport fisheries only.

Upper Columbia River subpopulation The abundance of white sturgeon from the Columbia River mainstem between Keenleyside Dam and the Canada-U.S. border was most recently assessed in 1995, when a population of 1,120 individuals (95% CI = 980 to 1,300) was estimated (RL&L 1996a). This figure does not include sampling in Lake Roosevelt in Washington State, and thus represents a minimum estimate of the total subpopulation. A smaller group of white sturgeon, considered part of the same subpopulation, has been identified at the upper end of Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located upstream from Keenleyside Dam. Estimates place the size of this group at 38 individuals (95% CI = 23 to 78) based on the results of 2000 studies (RL&L 2001).

Kootenai River subpopulation The Kootenai River subpopulation has been in general decline since the mid-1960's (Apperson and Anders 1991, Duke et al. 1999). The remaining wild population is comprised primarily of adult sturgeon older than 25 years, with very little recruitment observed in the wild population since the mid-1970's (Duke et al. 1999, Ireland et al. 2000). In 1997, there were an estimated 1,468 adults (95% CI: 740 to 2,197) and 17 juvenile white sturgeon (Paragamian et al. 1997).

Fraser River and Nechako River subpopulations Mark recapture estimates for subpopulations in the Nechako and lower Fraser Rivers (R.L. & L Environmental Services Ltd. 2000), plus the preliminary estimate from work being done by the Lheidli T’enneh First Nation (Yarmish and Toth 2001) for subpopulation in the Upper Fraser River show the following population sizes:

Fraser Regional subpopulation: 22,000 (95% CI = 9,800–70,700) Upper Fraser subpopulation: 255 (95% CI = 158–352) Nechako River subpopulation: 571 (95% CI = 421–890)

The preliminary population estimate for the Upper Fraser River may be skewed by the high recapture rate of individuals found in known areas of congregation. The fish tend to congregate in areas of preferred habitat but can also be found at very low densities in other areas of the mainstem. However, after extensive sampling, investigators do not believe the population can be larger than a few hundred individuals >50 cm in length (Yarmish, pers. comm).

Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Generally anadromous, but some subpopulations are landlocked and spend their entire life cycle in freshwater. Acipenser transmontanus is the largest freshwater fish species in North America. The largest white sturgeon on record weighed approximately 682 kg and was taken from the Snake River, Idaho in 1898. Individuals from landlocked subpopulations tend to be smaller.
Systems: Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Sacramento-San Joaquin River subpopulations

In California, white sturgeon reside mainly within the Sacramento River and its combined estuary with the San Joaquin River. Historical spawning habitat has been lost primarily due to dam construction and water diversions. In the Sacramento River, white sturgeon previously spawned upstream of Shasta Dam prior to its construction in the 1940s. It is also believed the San Joaquin River may have supported white sturgeon spawning prior to the development and implementation of large water diversions for agriculture (Moyle 1976). Results from a recent white sturgeon spawning habitat study reveal that most spawning occurs in a 55 river mile reach of the Sacramento River from Knights Landing to upstream of Colusa (Schaffter 1997).

Columbia and Snake River subpopulations Historically, white sturgeon were abundant in the unimpounded Columbia River (Oregon and Washington) and in the late 1800's supported an intense commercial fishery (DeVore et al. 1993). Intensive sturgeon fishing began in 1889 and peaked in 1892 with about 2,700,000 kg of sturgeon landed. The stock was depleted by 1899 after a ten year period of excessive harvest (Craig and Hacker 1940). Season, gear and minimum size restrictions failed to restore the population. Only after maximum size regulations designed to protect sexually mature sturgeon were enacted in 1950 did white sturgeon rebound in the Columbia River.

Hydroelectric development within the Columbia River basin beginning in 1933 began to isolate white sturgeon above dams. Today there are 17 landlocked subpopulations upstream of Bonneville Dam (the furthest downstream dam in the Columbia River) including the tributary Snake River (DeVore et al. 1993). Productivity appears to vary among the landlocked subpopulations as some support high populations and sustainable fisheries (DeVore et al. 1999b, North et al. 1999) while others sustain no exploitation due to low recruitment and productivity (PSMFC 1992).

Upper Columbia River subpopulation Extensive study has confirmed spawning by upper Columbia white sturgeon at two locations. The vast majority of spawning occurs at the Pend d'Oreille-Columbia confluence (Waneta tailrace) area near the Canada-U.S. border (e.g., RL&L 1995). Spawning at this site has occurred annually since 1993 - the first year spawning studies were initiated. In 1999, a second spawning area was documented in the upper Columbia River just upstream from Arrow Lakes Reservoir (RL&L 2000). Spawning did not occur at this site in 2000.

Despite the regularity of spawning events, age structure analyses show that recruitment began to decline in 1969, and has failed entirely since 1985 (RL&L 1995). Changes in length-frequency distribution follow a similar pattern, with a dramatic reduction in representation by smaller fish in ongoing sampling programs (RL&L 1996a, BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, data on file). Sampling in Lake Roosevelt in Washington State, although less intensive, shows a similar recruitment failure (DeVore et al. 1999, Spokane Tribe, data on file). Thus, recruitment of upper Columbia white sturgeon has failed completely, to the point where continued existence of the subpopulation is at risk.

Kootenai River subpopulation For more than the last 100 years, human development has modified the natural hydrograph of the Kootenai River through such activities as Libby dam construction and operation, dyke construction and lowered Kootenai Lake levels. These activities have altered white sturgeon spawning, egg incubation, nursery and rearing habitats, and reduced overall biological productivity. Although these factors may have contributed to a general lack of recruitment of this unique population of white sturgeon during the last century, the operation of Libby Dam in 1974 is considered to be a primary reason for the population’s continued decline (Apperson and Anders 1991). When Libby Dam began regulating the Kootenai River, average spring peak flows were reduced by more than 50% and winter flows increased by more than 300%.

Fraser River and Nechako River subpopulations Area of occupancy has no doubt been reduced in the lower mainstem due to the alienation of side channels from dyking activity, the infolding of sloughs and wetlands, development and industrial activity. The loss of sloughs, side channels and other low velocity backwater areas has decreased available juvenile rearing habitat. Loss of side channels may reduce spawning habitat availability as well. In the Nechako, flow reduction has reduced depth and the amount of habitat available in side channels and backwaters.


These sharks are notInquisitive minds want to know. How can fish breathe underwater if there is no air? Fish and humans resemble each other in many ways. We have digestive, circulatory and nervous systems similar to those of other vertebrates. And fish need oxygen just like we do. But when we spend time underwater we must carry air with us. What really makes a fish different is the respiratory system. The water that surrounds a fish contains dissolved oxygen in a ratio of about 5 ml per liter. Therefore they must have a system that can extract that small amount of oxygen out of the water and into their bloodstream. They use their gills for this, which are found between the mouth and the beginning of the gut or food tract called the pharynx. The process starts with the fish's mouth where he takes in water. When a fish opens and closes his mouth, he is pumping water back through the gills – his own way of breathing. The gills contain thousands of tiny capillaries (blood vessels), so as water passes over the gills, oxygen is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Bony fishes, which are the most common, have an effective pumping system that involves the mouth and the outer cover of the gills, called the operculum. When the fish's mouth opens, the operculum closes, drawing water into the mouth. When the fish closes his mouth, the operculum opens and allows fresh water to cross the gills. Oxygen passes through the thin wall of the gills and into the blood. Other fish, such as the tuna, have less effective pumping systems and must swim constantly to keep fresh oxygenated water flowing over their gills. They usually swim with their mouths partly open. Their World of Water Water temperature can greatly affect the concentration of free oxygen in the water. As water temperature increases the free oxygen concentration decreases. Stagnant or poor quality water also contains less oxygen. Since some fish require more oxygen than others, this helps to explain why some fish thrive in specific habitats. For example, trout prefer the cool waters of the northern streams because they are quite active and the cool water retains dissolved oxygen more readily. Carp are sluggish and don't require as much oxygen; they can thrive in warm, relatively stagnant water, such as ornamental ponds. The surface of the water where it comes into contact with the atmosphere tends to hold a higher content of oxygen. Goldfish can survive in non-aerated aquariums because they spend most of their time at the surface. The Home Aquarium Just as fish extract oxygen through their gills, they also produce carbon dioxide as waste and discharge it into the water. To be certain that there is enough oxygen in the water for the fish to "breathe," the carbon dioxide needs to be replaced by oxygen. This is called aeration. Aeration is the process by which oxygen is transferred from the air to the water. In the aquarium aeration is accomplished by breaking the surface of the water or by creating turbulence in the water. This is relatively easy to achieve in a freshwater tank, a bit more difficult in a saltwater aquarium. In your fish tank, aeration happens in a few ways: First, on the surface of the water in the tank, dissolved gases are released into the air and exchanged for oxygen. The greater the surface area, the greater the amount of oxygen taken in, which is why fancy narrow tanks or fish bowls with very little surface area can only support a couple of fish. Second, when water passes through a power filter and is exposed to the air before it's pumped back into the tank (which is the case with most power filters) the water is being aerated. Finally, an air pump connected to a bubbler in the tank - an airstone or one of those little bubbling divers - provides air from the bubbles as they burst in the tank. These are all methods of mechanical aeration. Aeration also occurs when live plants release oxygen as they grow. Since small fresh water tanks - 10 gallons and less - have little surface area, adding aeration through an airstone can be helpful. In larger fresh water tanks outfitted with power filters, the movement of the water caused by the filter will usually provide enough oxygenated water without an airstone, although the stream of bubbles from the stone can be pleasant to watch and certainly won't be doing any harm. Our fish are not so different from us – they see, taste, smell, hear and breathe – but they do it in their own underwater world. Understanding how fish utilize oxygen and rid their bodies of carbon dioxide, all underwater, will help you provide them with the best care. Read more at:  

A large shark can breath freshwater and brackish water.If from brackish water what side of the water are they breathing,salt or the fresh.Which one.Goldfish live in freshwater.Sharks and giant sharks can breath freshwater larger breathing system.Higher intelligence.Food in lakes are 100 000 fish stocked up in lakes and from nature.There is food in lakes.And sturgeon's prove they get out to the ocean.They leave the lakes and get out naturally to salt water.Fish predators leave the lakes to ocean and salt water.The giant breathing system start off with in tonnes takes in the brackish water then freshwater of Great lakes.Great Lakes gets its waters from Lake of the Woods,gets it from James Bay.No such thing is freshwater.Its all brackish.Sharks don't live in Great Lakes because salt water is for the salt water species.Most of the sharks are salt water species.Freshwater needs its own species.Pushing salt water species to use salt water breathing system in brackish water or Lake Superior.They tend to build places resemble the Great lakes area in oceans like seal colonies rocks.it looks like the Great lakes with the rocks.Straight forward to push the salt water fish breathing system in Great Lakes and there are salt water fish that live in Great Lakes get back out to salt water from lakes.

Sea Monsters - A Walking with Dinosaurs Trilogy (HD Quality) Ep29:13

Sea Monsters - A Walking with Dinosaurs Trilogy (HD Quality) Ep. 3

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Kootenai River subpopulation The Kootenai River population of white sturgeon was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act on September 6, 1994 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Subsequently, a recovery team composed of two Canadians and eight Americans was formed in January 1995. The team completed a final recovery plan for the Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1998 which was subsequently approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in late 1999 (Duke et al. 1999). The recovery plan describes a series of 46 specific conservation measures in the United States and Canada that are believed necessary to recover the endangered white sturgeon. Recovery objectives are to re-establish successful reproduction in the wild by increasing Kootenai River flows and producing hatchery-reared juveniles over the next 10 years to prevent extinction.
CachDog

Megaladon "dog shark"

cacharadon but are their own and are giant and manipulate and intimidation the orcas and Great Whites.Great whites row of teeth are not as fearsome as the Greenland sharks's razor teeth,sand tiger's long and grows wide teeth more deadly than white shark.Alligator shark's set of slicer teeth and fangs grow wide like a reptile's but as shark.Hammerhead and its giant size
KusoCartoon 13842950659284

Cacharadon Megaladon Tiger Shark like

of being same and bigger than White Shark and the tiger shark.
Dogfish

dogfish

[6]dogfishAdded by Queen Armada[7]hammerhead sharkAdded by Queen Armada[8]carpet sharkAdded by Queen ArmadaThe Dogfish can grow as big as 60ft and weigh 45metric tonnes.It is its own species and has giant curved
Indexsc

ABC video Shark Chronicles

teeth and its pitch black eyes role back.Hammerhead would grow in 20's ft and in Canada or Eastern Canada.The Carpet shark was also a prehistoric shark and a giant at 45ft and 35metric tonnes in sea that the Great Lakes were. [9]greenland sharkAdded by Queen ArmadaGreenland shark can grow to 20's ft and weigh tonnes.This creature when bigger is very fiercesome
KusoCartoon 13820438173635

tiger shark cachardon Megaladon

as when many sharks get big in tonnes they become
KusoCartoon 13799927957286

Tiger Shark like Cacharadon Megaladon

very smart and very dangerous a hunter.They can even be maneaters.They are not easy to catch.Size and bite and diver is gone.Eaten with the mouth and jaws opening wider than on t.v.Animals can hide their predations and hide things of theirs as their jaw bite from man.They eat people and gain being smarter. [10]Prehistoric Cacharadon
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U.Boat sighting Cacharadon

salt water cold freshwater seasAdded by Queen ArmadaPrehistoric dogfish was an ultimate hunter and under cacharadon Megaladon.Dogfish is not as its shape is different.More scarey than great white simply its size and making its teeth bigger and size making it more dangerous and
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Whale shark like Cachardon Megaladon

aggressive.And being sophisticated as sharks with their instincts and not as ordinary fish makes them the sharks.Greenland is a North American and New World shark.It might live in the Great Lakes and waterways attatched to salt water,man made and a naturally.Sharks to get activated behaviour to be violent salt water.They go into modes in freshwater which is attatched to salt.You can't do the things in freshwater as in salt with sharks.Dogfish and its dorsal fin and dorsal views as for sharks dorsal view and for Greenland shark,hammerhead but giant.Dorsal fin raised as
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Cachardon Megaladon species

shark.They eat big prey as Great Lakes must need to sustain a large fish or many types of large cod and salmon.Then to salt water to whales and seals.Fish staple diet of sharks and bigger the plant eater fish.Sharks
B4A11414-46BD-4113-9D1F-C6C3DEC3E1EC

Cacharadon Megaladon species

turn to cannibals from madness.Canadian Megaladon stories.Back in the 16th Century.It might live in the Great Lakes and waterways attatched to salt
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Black Cacharadon Megaladon

water,man made and a naturally.Cacharadon Megaladon has many species.Some look like a bullshark,tigershark and sand tiger shark, and Great White.It was a creature that was sealed in the lakes as a trap.It lives deep trenches in oceans escaping natural disasters.It could live now

[11][http://discoverychannel.wikia.com/wiki/File:Sea_Monsters_-_The_3rd_Most_Deadly_Sea_1_2 Sea Monsters - The 3rd Most Deadly Sea 1 2(12:16)

0 views]Added by Queen Armadabut also released in waters of Alaska,frozen embryoes and in Antarctica.Oceans used to be warm for Cacharadon Megladon.How do each hunt like.Eat whales.This 60 ft giant is not oversized to his prey whales.Consumption ration.Predators smaller than the bulls not size bull,extinction.Many routes straight
Large-prehistoric-shark-comparison

prehistoric sharks sizes

out of
Subwatersheds-ee9211a37b234cd36ebd9ca0112e1c1b

Lake Simcoe

[12][http://discoverychannel.wikia.com/wiki/File:Sea_Monsters_-_The_3rd_Most_Deadly_Sea_2_2 Sea Monsters - The 3rd Most Deadly Sea 2 2(03:29) 0 views]Added by Queen ArmadaGod's traps.Rivers and underground seas and many creeks and bodies of water leaching into seas and lakes.Lives in brackish waters and cold waters in hot zones earth.Empty deep oceans trenches are cold.Animal behaviour like recording orca calls and seal behaviour,penguins.Whale calls.Tracking this predator.Isolation.Goes deep to diving.Waders beach,viewing through the water at them from hundreds fo yards in the 30ft depths shallowest.

Natural food is there as planteaters as whales or they can't eat consistant as flesh eater they eat those whales.Sharks
Indexs

shipping routes

Gps-actual-shipping-routes

Shipping routes

are smart with predation and attack modes.Their in their environment as prehistoric dogfish like cacharadon and its moves,territorial of North America's waters.Ultimate and scarey predator that ate giant seals.The sharks used to eat wading prehistoric bulls and deers waded in deep water of 20's ft deep submerged.Eat prehistoric planteaters wading submerged.Armor skin layers to their prey and enemies in water as sea monsters and other
IndexUS

Northern US waters

predator whales.Nocturnal life and day life in Prehistoric Canada.Sharper detail in dog fish to add shark features to its fins and distributed body like a shark not over do it as it is
Cryptmeg1

Cacharadon Megaladon hunting modern day

a shark.Cachardon sharper features,dorsal features.Greenland on its own is a dangerous whale like shark.Smart and a hunter that can fool scans,systems of machines and other animal modes.Head is bulky to block out sonar and eye scan imagery from prey.Greenlands maintain their weight for tonne freshwater which is attatched to sea salt water.Greenlands are deer eaters and travel in USA in their rivers,Missouri and Mississippi Rivers.Hit hotter waters change temperature as sharks migrate in tribal.No boundries in ocean and bodies of water and there are purposes as they used to be seas in prehistoric eras.Prehistoric carpet shark giant used to use deception.Pretend to be the sand underwater and then when prey was deep enough in what was Georgian Bay it would come out from under the sand to nab and eat the prey with shark jaws.It would do this predation.It was roundish and shark dorsal features,sharp features of shark with lures.Travel to the deeps and with its giant size had very few enemies but rivals as dinosaurs.Fool creatures sand camauflage.Fast speed as giant
Index

giant Sixgill

sharks have speed from their weight as in giant creatures to project it forward and is sharks they glide and sail from weight.Gianter muscles and tail
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Shark Chronicles

propulsion and endurance increased power play around with concrete like if it was dirt blocks.Giant weight level.Dogfish had sharp features extreme power to mash concrete and rocks like dirt.Weight and power. [13]outer space alien planets Crocodile{Gar}Alligator shark sturgeonAdded by Queen ArmadaAlligator shark is
IndexJb

James Bay

colorful with armor over its body.Characteristics of a reptile grows giant and a predator.In space its a flesh eater and bites flesh with size alligator jaw snap with shark teeth.It has better armor than all of sharks and its relative the crocodile shark as in http://residentevil.wikia.com/Crocodile meaning they must know of what croc sharks are like in space mysteries they are carnivorous.Under
350px-Scandinavia regions map

Scandinavian seas

water giant size.Alligator shark to Florida is Canadian one.The giant prehistoric Shark is of many appearances.I made many appearances because a great white is a large and fat shark.It is not a giant but only 30ft most.It is smaller a shark because it when its a tonne get in shallows.Its prime food are people to get to them in shallows.It might be able to be in 4ft of water.The other sharks like the tiger shark might grow really huge and because they are used to growing to giant prehistoric shark it used to living in waters that when its an adult.Deep waters that a 60 metric tonne giant can swim in 20ft water.Pups will make mistakes and are not Great whites.Great white is most in size as adult is few tonnes and pups of Prehistoric giant sharks get to size of Great white adult.I put these maps because from prehistoric age they are remote places untouched by man.Places are ideal for the giant sharks to live in.Each is different appearance from where in world they are adapting to.I brought out bull shark because it has fierceness.Its for some reason quit feirce.It if grown but like a cacharadon or prehistoric shark will grow.Because it might grow to giant.Many traits in many sharks that tell us he is going to be a giant.Fierce and smart.Because many smaller sharks stay away from Great white til they are certain age.But when most of these sharks grow like the sandtiger shark it will as the whale shark prehistoric giant will start to look like a giant shark,dorsal fin,teeth and more aerodynamic.It will grow fatter but as entire body not in one part.Distribution of weight gives giant its speed.From Star Wars we saw the giant fish had speed to catch up to crafts.In WW1 and WW2 the battleships speed was not faster then the prehistoric giant.It has defenses in its body too.Being young and it has some sort of imortality,nervous system energizes up as a creature.It uses its defenses and sadly they all look like alien species of shark as they are using the shark of earth to be born.Because many planets oceans dedicated to the giant shark and supply it more of its food than fights.This giant is smart and hatred's fights.It just wants to hunt for food and intimidate as its nature.Being drowned onto earth it might fight and this is not part of its game to fight each other.When they fight like even for a sperm whale which diet is scavaging on dead remains and eating nothing but flesh.Not a food source.Giant prehistoric shark is very smart at knowing many things like its diet and fights.It will avoid fight to get at its food and it eats ships.Ships are like can to peel open for higher species man.And on many worlds in space as we all brought to this planet.On other alien worlds we have seen the small sharks born giant.5ft and even the mini shark cm long.Its going to grow big because a cm long shark and no one will find it and its location til it starts eating to grow.It wants to eat a diet so it can properly grow.Not fight.But being from space like Star Wars showed that it will live on alien worlds.Might be a more dangerous than fish being some sharks.From nature it will keep being a pup and from it adapting to modern world as it might have had embryoes in ice and snow and when sun got hot enough the embryoes took off to sea and lake.The shark always laid embryoes like that in ice as giant prehistoric shark is very intelligent because of its larger brain.It has giant brain that is bigger than mammals.Great white's brain is peanut compared to smaller 3ft and 5ft sharks as they will be smarter and better evolution process to future past 2400 AD.Its very smart to adjust to evolution.It has a demon{creature} for its soul and when it gets born its not a pup.It has something very wrong about it and its mother leaves them but they are protected severely.Their own system,nervous system energizes protects them as they have a language to each other not to fight.They all are same species that they are prehistoric and are all from space.Even from separate worlds.But here on earth they are much like a gang.They are a family and won't attack each other.Only enemy is itself and the great white.Great white does not fit in on its evolution process.Its big and fat at early age and grow adult but great whites are cannibals and much like a dragon.They like to fight and eat or attack sperm whale.Great white won't eat food but a giant shark goes to them like the shark world and manipulates them.Being giant and I think a lemon shark,and hammerhead are probably giants.Even sleeper shark might grow to giant prehistoric shark.Salmon shark and other small sharks because its going to enlargen.Its going to look more giant biting jaws and large aerodynamic shark body.Because if its all in the gut like cacharadon megaldon it won't have any monuverability and because of it being too fat it can't do a move that normal move to giant prehistoric sharks do when they are tigers.It can use speed and burst to go after its prey faster than ship.It needs to to acellerate and bite on prey because the prey are fast and will go faster than ships.So it needs to go at  114 km/h (70.86 mph.It must be able to go faster as being giant body has giant muscles that wip around and cruise full speed dorsal fin on top water so water will rush and do reactions.It gets to speed and its gills send out mist cloud which means the giant prehistoric shark is at his best level to go after his food and he will attack his enemies and watch him and he lunges and goes full speed perfect planet to fight with his natural enemies.He has so many whales and many sharks like Great white that get into his way and he is proving milestones that his speed and lunge ability to bite and tear the whales head off.His fangs will widen as they grow to 1ft.He grows in many areas to be large and dorsal.Dorsal means to have ability to attack and cut through the water at full velocity.Velocity is important for the giant shark to avade human ships.Stay away from those whalers and their harpoons or even military and their guns.He is a creature.He has sort of armor like dragons his scales.And his
15-PACIFIC-SLEEPER-SHARK

Sleeper shark

Index

Salmon sharks

nervous system energizes but scarey.Thrive on this in oceans vs his enemies and it works.It helps them to go so fast because he uses his giant muscles in proportion.Proportion is superior because he is better than a warship and cruises under the water.Jump faster in their areas they live in like those empty bodies of water which is great rest for them to stay at live safely.They have bountiful supply of food and rarely fight with orcas.Its not a stirred up system.Great areas they select because shark will take part of area and use it as his territory.It looks like prehistoric giant sharks territory like the sleeper shark was showing.He will go in and we don't know his young age at 30ft that he can act peaceful and absorbed up about humanity to make them smarter.They are even that 6 gill shark and that man showing us these selected sharks is very smart.What he is imposing on that 6 gill shark is also same pattern but what if he grows 50ft and giant prehistoric shark.They know they can push it on man severely as great whites back away from stuff they do.But tiger shark will avade man til they have their giant size as rightfull giant of sea and lakes.These are places in old days of prehistoric era that the seas sealed off from the giant seas of the arctic ocean no land north of Hudson's Bay to hot ocean near Alaska and this was a giant hot sea for the elders.Prehistoric elders.They would not have been made this advanced and cope to man and his war machines.These sharks are better than the past and have genes Creator put in them to shoot out and grow from food.They have protection system that nature made it a needle in haystack on their young.Many people believe this animal is cool.I do because I am from Melynesia and its one of the animals in the water and my Dad or ancestor found out we are a family and our beliefs are of Khan family.Their names are Khan.Like Klingons which my ancestors are Native.They though are Chinese,Indian and German,Klingon and Klingons show their crest but what is the water has no crest and those Klingons when they are on earth respect our giant alot.We all like the giant and understand him really alot and his enemies like Orca are ours.Native of Antarctica is Klingon.They sailed their giant war canoes at such speeds and at hundreds of feet forward with the giant shark underneath.His body energy is what makes him grow faster and bulges out in proportion.He does not have his nose to weigh him down like the great white which reduces his speed and makes him weighed down to the bottom of the depths to where the giant shark pups are sea bottom.The white shark has ill proportion and is not sleak.Its can't uses body weight to go faster and on an hunt to move around.Salmon shark grows and its tail grows and it hits tonne.Then from tonne its jaws grow sleek and grow to giant prehistoric modern day giant 60 metric tonnes.Proportion and from when it was a salmon shark.Salmon shark goes and lives a life from west coast where orcas and great whites live.Travels up north to Alaska and eats every salmon they want.But when he bulges in tonnes right proportion of salmon shark his teeth going to widened.Perfect killing weapons when he is 1ft long giant wide Salmon shark teeth.When they are young they don't have the power bulges in their body but gain it to be giant prehistoric shark of modern day.Look at tonne weight sharks like tiger shark and the hammerhead.They grew long but when phase when its body weight and power,muscles of modern day giant shark.That propel them to hunt menacing and their modes they switch to.We know so much about smaller sharks like 7ft sharks.They though are pretending and make facial reactions like animals and means things.Some pictures he means he is going to be giant at 60ft and weigh 52 metric tonnes because his father and Mom said so.They are intelligent from their family.They have a generous family feeling.Being large they have emotions.They have seen scarred sharks and many of the kids think and have things in pictures they say.This creature is not helpless and is well off in in the animal kingdom to compare it to man.Small is not a weakness and its from animal being self sufficient.They do not suckle to parents and have that feeling in them.Heartless and display as grown up when they had a look as a pup.Even the size of goldfish.People kept him but his body went into stage.He looked dead and his creator's take care of them.As in ghosts and animals have their angels or man would criminal them with war machines.They proudly don't come out for them as they are living better.But he will not act like in his aquarium and start to kill things like trout and small muskies.Eat the whole thing worse than cat eats a rabbit.He will keep eating like this and in year he will be sizd of goldfish to part of tonne.Seems they as kids grow and have hormone like kids but in animals to grow and grow.Grow to point anyone underwater like Klingon is scared of them.Far away in creator that they are in Antarctica and Alaska as cold freshens the water.It looks very clean from arctic temperatures.Fussy animal but in hunting will overcome this to get the prey.Sleek and grown in giant scale proportion and they have their fast and agile adaptations to menace the ocean and dialogue to other of their shark species.Complicated nervous system meaning a large mind and family attributes underwater as part of family.This is also that this shark is not effected by outside sharks and has a family that it maintains to be like of bird of feather.They solid in mind and part family says for them to act intelligent.Orcas are intelligent in Sea park or aquarium.They believe capture is embarrasing.The animal has high level of confidence and looks at the past as grandaddy.he is 10yrs from 2000's.Much to do with nature that has changed.Back in 80's no one caught site of them except from 7ft relatives.Great whites were 20ft.They were ones chomping on whale.Cacharadon is implied as giant great white shark of past.So much brain and body weight snout.Great white because of being fat is target in fight to new giant sharks.They move in so fast and have jaws right to the gills.Open and they have types of bites not just to open and say ahh.They use parts of the jaws like fangs.Tear and bite.For a fast bite and great white is damaged badly like slave.Great whites are rebelious and seem to hate their secrets of the depths.It has gone after all of giant shark pups and bullies the 7ft shark.The hammerhead took this from great white and tiger.Great whites are white supremacists in wild.They will use help from outside world and from orcas.They will join in in animal kingdom but there used to be giant seal lions that lived in that prehistoric ocean of arctic.Seal lion was food size of 30ft.It used to go after them as food and they were plentiful fed from going after seal lions.Cruising speed and they make faces underwater and many animals do their jaws open underwater and when they open their jaws side ways and gush water into their mouth and any of them might do this predation.Means on an island for food.Jaws are open with all that water in gills and moving cruising forward sideways.Eyes of course protective but like a cat in mode.White eyes and he is making a plan with family and not with what he looks like.Others that prove they travel and share the waters with them.Whale shark prehistoric giant shark,Bullshark prehistoric giant and salmon shark all go in on attack like war in wild.Great whites are old but have no confidence.No abilities or speed so they are lazy and lombard a shark.They have no sleek body or excessive weight use for abilitiy like the aquarium fish shark giant.He has weight but is so fast faster than warship or hydrofoil.They have their smarts.Wisdom from time and past and future,present.They gain knowledge as seeing things.Have abilities in deep water.Deep water is what gets Megaladon going.It has so many appearances to give it qualities.Salmon shark its streamline body and when its in chilled waters and its journey from hot of California to Alaska.Empty waters to the bully orca.And it goes with its attack on salmon.They are protected by their parents and larger family members intelligence.Very intelligent giants.Reproductive to when they are even 4tonnes in weight that they are not 50tonnes when they stop protecting them in double digits.Not oversized like a whale which it eats like steaks and ribs.Anything slumbering is a cow to Megaladon.Slow speed makes a cow.No skills.Its predation and it gets more evil the bigger than 5tt they are.Eat and gain size in double digits.Territorial.Its abandon places with very little activity than the abundant oceans lively.Picks the subarctic waters and other Canadian places.Even of Indo China remote.The porbeagle shark is a large warm-blooded shark that likes to stay cool. This shark possesses a special body heat mechanism that allows it to raise its body temperature several degrees higher than the surrounding water. This allows it to function efficiently in the freezing waters of the North Atlantic. 
  • Size
    Maximum weight is over 660 pounds; Maximum length is over 10 feet, but the average is 6-8
  • Age
    Maximum age is 25 years
  • Range/Distribution
    The salmon shark is widely distributed in coastal and oceanic environments of the subarctic and temperate North Pacific Ocean.
  • Diet
    Salmon sharks feed on sea otters, birds, salmon, squid, sablefish, herring, walleye pollock, and a variety of other fish
  • Predators
    Other sharks, humans
  • Reproduction
    Mating occurs in late summer to autumn. Females give live birth in the spring to 2-5 pups
  • The salmon shark is widely distributed in coastal and oceanic environments of the subarctic and temperate North Pacific Ocean. Their preferred temperature range is 2.5 to 24 degrees Celsius. They range across the North Pacific from the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk to the Sea of Japan in the western Pacific, and from the Gulf of Alaska to southern Baja California, Mexico, in the eastern Pacific. This species is most common in continental offshore waters, from the surface down to a depth of at least 500 feet, but it has been known to come inshore - sometimes just beyond the breaker zone. The salmon shark has a spinal-shaped, lightly bulbous body with conspicuously large gill slits and a conical snout. The first dorsal fin is very high and erect, originating just over or slightly behind the pectoral insertions. Their second dorsal fin is minute and begins just about over the beginning of the anal fin. They have strong keels on the caudal peduncle, with a secondary keel on the caudal base, and a crescent-shaped dorsal fin. As with other species from the Lamnidae family, salmon sharks could be potentially dangerous due to their size. Salmon sharks could be mistaken for mackerel sharks (Lamna nasus), however, clear identification is possible by comparing the free ends of their first dorsal fins. With the salmon shark it is just as dark as the dorsal fin, with mackerel sharks it is white and shows a clear dividing line.

    The maximum size of a mackeral shark is about three meters. Rumors which claim they can reach more than 3.5 meters have not yet been confirmed. Their maximum age is unknown although it is presumed to be around 30 years old.

Feeding

Mackerel sharks feed mainly on pelagic schoolers such as herring, sardines and mackerels. They also eat cod and other gadoids as well as smaller shark species (found in stomach analyses).This species has been seen to swim alone or in schools (also see "Meaningful usage or overexploitation?" in this issue) either directly underneath the water's surface or in greater depths (up to about 350 meters). Based on earlier catch statistics and research findings they presumably live at least partially separated according to age and sex.

Mackerel sharks feed mainly on pelagic schoolers such as herring, sardines and mackerels. They also eat cod and other gadoids as well as smaller shark species (found in stomach analyses).This species has been seen to swim alone or in schools (also see "Meaningful usage or overexploitation?" in this issue) either directly underneath the water's surface or in greater depths (up to about 350 meters). Based on earlier catch statistics and research findings they presumably live at least partially separated according to age and sex.

Bull sharks are aggressive, common, and usually live near high-population areas like tropical shorelines. They are not bothered by brackish and freshwater, and even venture far inland via rivers and tributaries.

Because of these characteristics, many experts consider bull sharks to be the most dangerous sharks in the world. Historically, they are joined by their more famous cousins, great whites and tiger sharks, as the three species most likely to attack humans.

Bull sharks get their name from their short, blunt snout, as well as their pugnacious disposition and a tendency to head-butt their prey before attacking. They are medium-size sharks, with thick, stout bodies and long pectoral fins. They are gray on top and white below, and the fins have dark tips, particularly on young bull sharks.

They are found cruising the shallow, warm waters of all the world’s oceans. Fast, agile predators, they will eat almost anything they see, including fish, dolphins, and even other sharks. Humans are not, per se, on their menus. However, they frequent the turbid waters of estuaries and bays, and often attack people inadvertently or out of curiosity.

Bull sharks currently are not threatened or endangered. However, they are fished widely for their meat, hides, and oils, and their numbers are likely shrinking. One study has found that their average lengths have declined significantly over the past few decades. The Pacific Sleeper Shark, also called the Somniosus pacificus in the scientific community, belongs to the belongs to the Somniosidae shark family. However, unlike its close cousins, it does not grow over 23 feet (7 meters). One of these sharks was recently filmed using bait in the Tokyo Bay (Japan) which measured at 7 meters or 23 feet. At maturity, they typically weigh around 340 kilograms or 750 pounds and are normally around 12 feet in length, or about 3.6 meters.

The Pacific Sleeper Shark has a rounded and a short snout. It is grey or grayish-black in color and has a bristly and rough skin. They have a cylindrical body and the dorsal fins are low.

Studying the Pacific Sleeper Shark’s feeding habits and diet in Alaska has revealed that they feed mostly on giant Pacific Octopus, soles, pollocks, flounders and teleost fish. When available to them, they will also eat hermit crabs, rockfishes, marine snails, pacific salmon, squids and shrimps. Their feeding habits generally depend on the geographical area they live in and on the availability of prey.The Pacific Sleeper Shark is found almost all around the planet, although they prefer to swim in deeper or colder waters. Depths from the surface to more than 2000 meters or 6,500 feet deep are common (that’s more than a full mile under water!). They are known to avoid light and swim at depths under the photic surface during the day and come up to surface at night. That makes them a rare sighting by humans. This shark can be found in abundance in Japan’s north Pacific and occurs right along the Siberian coast into the Bering Sea. It is also found further south across the Califronian and Mexican coasts. Another favorite habitat of Pacific Sleeper Sharks is the seamounts to the south of Tasmania, the Macquarie Island, and the Challenger Plateau off New Zealand. They have also been found in good numbers off Uruguay.

One of the most interesting features of the Pacific Sleeper Shark is that they are predominantly scavengers and rarely hunt. They are very slow but can move in the water elegantly and without much effort of body movement. The lack of movement allows them to catch prey easier because they don’t make much noise. Their feeding habit is also a little different and they feed using cutting and suction. Because of their large mouths, they can use suction to suck the prey in and the teeth help in cutting down pieces that cannot be swallowed (they swallow by rolling their heads).

They have the right kind of teeth for feeding. The upper teeth are spear-like and strong while the lower ones are built for slicing. They are known to have one of the most powerful bites of all sharks studied, so don’t go sticking your hand in their mouths if you see one!

Another great feature is that they can change depths at the rate of about 200 meters or 650 feet per hour.Since the Pacific Sleeper Shark is not a predominant hunter, they are found mostly in smaller groups. Since scavenging is their main way of feeding, being in smaller groups is more beneficial for them.

While they are considered a threat to humans, it’s mostly only due to their enormous their size. There has also been very little human interaction with this shark, so it’s not exactly known how this shark would react to a human in its environment. Moreover, the Pacific Sleeper Shark swims at unfishable depths. To date, most of them which have been caught have been placed back into the sea. Most of them are juveniles that grow in shallow waters before adapting to deeper seas. No known conservation steps have been taken since the species is not considered threatened (let’s keep it that way!).

Due to the lack of food sources at the depths they prefer, they tend to store food for long periods. The stomach of this shark has enough space to do so. The shark also has the right chemicals on the skin to render its proteins stable at great depths. This is very essential to enable the shark to swim comfortably and efficiently. And finally, it ensures that the reproductive and digestive hormones stay stable at such depths and high pressure. Offspring

There is not much known about adolescent Pacific Sleeper Sharks. The reproductive cycle and the other details are not readily available. However, it is quite well known that these sharks follow the Ovoviviparous reproductive cycle which means the hatching of egg capsules occurs inside the mother’s uterus. The female usually has about 300 eggs ready to fertilize once she comes of age. The gestation (pregnancy) period has not been accurately measured and the litter size is known to be around 10 pups. The newborn pups are known to measure about 1.38 feet (or 42 centimeters). Tiger Shark – Galeocerdo cuvier

Tiger sharks are very large and so they require a considerable amount of wide open space. They enjoy warm water so they are found in the tropic areas of the world as well as some sub tropic locations. The Atlantic ocean is where most of them have been recognized.

You can find many of them around the islands of Hawaii. They tend to hang out around the surface of the water so they are often spotted easily. In recent years they have also been spotted around the waters of both New Zealand and Japan. Facts about Tiger Sharks

Tiger sharks have been recorded with the most attacks on humans only behind the great white. They are very aggressive by nature and will stop at nothing to complete a hunt for food. They will attack when they feel they are in danger which is why they are known to attack humans.

It is the fourth largest shark found in the world. They are solitary sharks that tend to live alone. They have amazing eyesight which is why they tend to hunt at night. They can camouflage with their blue or green color to help them blend in better with the surroundings in the water. Eating Habits of Tiger Sharks

A tiger shark will eat any type of fish, shark, animal, and small entity it can find in the water. They are very curious by nature and will taste anything that comes their way. The stomachs of tiger sharks have been found with some very unique items inside of them. This includes pieces of boats and ships, jewelry, clothing, tires, books, and more. If it finds its way into the water there is a good chance a tiger shark is going to dine on it.

Tiger sharks tend to have a very big appetite but they will also eat when they aren’t hungry just because they see something around them that they enjoy. The variation in weight has to do with how much food is readily available in the area where they live. Anatomy of a Tiger Shark

They can grow to be about 14-20 feet in length with an average of 12 feet. They can vary in weight from 850 pounds to approximately 1,400 pounds. It gets its name due to the stripes found on it that resemble those on a tiger. Each one of the tiger sharks will have stripes that are different in color, design, and size. You will also notice that their dorsal fins are very close to the tail. Reproduction of Tiger Sharks

Female tiger sharks give birth to live young. The pups remain inside of their mother for up to 16 months with 14 months being the average. They can give birth to anywhere from 10 to 80 pups at a time. They will be on their own from the second they are born. Females are ready to reproduce when they are about 8 years of age. Males are ready when they are 6-7 years of age. Conservation Status: Near Threatened.

Since tiger sharks are known for attacking people they are often killed. Since they live in shallow water they are easy for hunters to spot. Others are killed by ships and boats as they may be residing in river areas since they don’t require deep waters. They are continually hunted in Hawaii in order to keep tourists from being afraid to enter the waters.

They are also hunted to use for various types of products we consume. For example they are used to make Vitamin A. In some locations the flesh of the tiger shark is used for meat. They don’t seem to be in danger of a dwindling population though even in spite of such hunting efforts. The sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) is one species of shark which has been chased and slaughtered simply because of its threatening appearance. This harmless species has been practically extinguished in individual regions of the world and it remains to be seen if the protective measures introduced in several countries will prove to be effective.



The biology of the sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus)

Every year sand tiger sharks undertake long migrations. This means they always appear seasonally - normally within a specific time period of several weeks - at the same places. Their ocean habitat ranges to a depth of approximately 200 meters and they are usually nocturnal. Based on current knowledge, the sand tiger shark is the only shark species which swims to the water's surface and swallows air in order to regulate its buoyancy, enabling the animal to move around and remain at any desired depth. Although they are very strong, they appear lethargic and tend to swim slowly. Appearance and identifying marks

The physical appearance of a sand tiger shark strongly reflects the many prejudices which people tend to have about sharks: large, with permanently visible, long and dagger-formed teeth. In reality, however, sand tiger sharks are completely harmless. They have extremely small eyes but no Nickhaut (a third eyelid which it can pull over its eyes, a feature found, e.g. with gray sharks). In addition to its prominent teeth, its equally sized dorsal finds are considered another typical feature. Sand tiger sharks are light brown in color, with bronze- colored backs, a white abdomen and very often red spots on its flanks. Size

Sand tiger sharks can grow to a length of more than 300 cm. Males and females are sexually mature when they reach a length of approximately 220 cm. Juveniles are born alive and measure approximately 100 cm in length at birth. Feeding Habits

Sand tiger sharks prefer to feed on fish such as herring, snappers/Schnapper, eels, mackerels or other fish, and in rare cases, some smaller shark species. According to reports this species also goes hunting together, driving together swarms of fish and thus making them easy prey. Reproduction

The sand tiger shark has an unusual method of reproduction. During its embryonal phase, the more developed embryos eat up their less developed siblings. In this way only the two strongest young - one per uterus - survive and are born. At birth they measure one meter in length, which considerably increases their chances of survival since it reduces the number of their natural enemies. A similar strategy can be found with other shark species, whereby the embryos are not cannabilistic, but rather feed on less developed eggs found in the uterus. However, such strategies are only common with shark species who have no real uterus, for these would otherwise provide for a constant food supply. The length of gestation with sand tiger sharks is between 8 to 12 months. Distribution

Sand tiger sharks are found practically around the world in regions with moderate climates. They live in the western Atlantic from Maine to the Gulf of Mexico, but are not found in the Caribbean waters, although occasionally they are spotted around the Bahamas. Further territories include southern Brazil to Argentina, Bermuda, the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean. Around the African continent they are found mostly in South Africa and the Red Sea as well as Australia and Tasmania. Behavior

Sand tiger sharks are often found in large groups which gather to mate or go hunting. Latest observations show that sand tiger sharks display a distinct social behavior. They like to linger socially underneath cliff overhangs or similar structures, remaining there motionless - with the help of swallowed air - for longer periods of time. Encounters with humans

Despite their frightening appearance, sand tiger sharks are harmless animals which divers can get close to without hesitation. If one approaches them too closely they swim a couple of meters away and then stop. Since sand tiger sharks are very shy, their populations have been rapidly decimated as the first wave of "shark hysteria" hit humans. Especially in Australia this once led to an alarming reduction of their populations, while today they are protected.
IndexHds

Hudson's Bay islands

James-Bay-2009-REKN

James Bay islands

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D0F6BB9B-F8E3-4332-948B-6FBD42C1AA29

Giant sharks tonnes weight in pen tank

3F19533A-EAF7-4439-9259-FB22A2AAA0C9

aquarium white races alien world exhibit facing arctic ocean Cacharadon Megaladon species

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